Genital Herpes

Genital Herpes is a common STI that can cause painful blisters in the genital area. The infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV, type 1 and type 2. Both type 1 and type 2 can cause Genital Herpes.

Cold sores around the mouth are also caused by HSV, but usually by type 1.

How is it passed on?

HSV enters the body through small cracks in the skin or through the mouth, vagina, rectum, urethra (the tube where urine comes out) and under the foreskin.

It can be passed on through skin to skin contact during oral, vaginal or anal sex, or by sharing sex toys with someone who is infected.

You cannot get Genital Herpes from sharing baths or towels, from swimming pools, toilet seats or from sharing cups, plates or cutlery.

The virus will not pass through a condom but as condoms do not cover all of the genital area it is possible to infect genital skin that is not covered by the condom.

If you already have one type of HSV it is still possible for you to get the other type (although you may not notice symptoms).


Not everyone who has the virus will get symptoms, which is why many people do not know they are infected.

Some people will get symptoms within four or five days of coming into contact with the virus. In other people, the virus may be in the body for several weeks, months or possibly years before any symptoms appear. When you get symptoms it doesn’t necessarily mean you’ve only just come into contact with the virus.

You may have some or all of the following:

  • Flu-like symptoms such as fever, tiredness, headache, swollen glands, aches and pains in the lower back and down the legs or in the groin
  • Stinging, tingling or itching in the genital or anal area
  • Small, fluid-filled blisters anywhere in the genital or anal area, on the buttocks and the tops of the thighs. These burst within a day or two leaving small, red sores which can be very painful
  • Pain when passing urine caused by the urine flowing over the sores.

Recurrent outbreaks are usually milder than with the first outbreak and clear up more quickly (in about a week).

You can only be certain you have Genital Herpes if you have a test while the sores are present.

Long term effects

It is rare for Genital Herpes to cause any long term health problems. However, the virus remains in the body and can cause further outbreaks. It is common to get outbreaks when you feel run down or when you are pregnant.


The aim of the treatment is to relieve the pain, and to prevent the virus from multiplying. However, it does not clear the virus from the body. Treatment is usually started within 48 hours of the start of the first outbreak and while new blisters or sores are still forming. Usually a short five day course of antiviral tablets is given.

You can also use local anaesthetic ointment such as lidocaine. This will numb the skin where the sores are to ease the pain.

People who have repeated outbreaks (usually more than six in a year) may be given longer courses of the tablets to try to reduce or stop outbreaks.

The treatment you can buy for facial cold sores is not suitable for Genital Herpes.

Telling your partner

It is best to discuss a new diagnosis of Genital Herpes with your partner. Genital Herpes is most likely to be passed on just before, during or after an outbreak so you should not have sex during this period. When you do not have symptoms, however, there is still a small risk you can pass on the virus to a partner, although using a condom can lower this risk further. You might not need to tell previous partners but it may be helpful to discuss this with someone at your local sexual health clinic.

How to avoid Genital Herpes

Using condoms reduces the risk of contracting all sexually transmitted infections including Genital Herpes.

Genital Herpes can be passed on even when there are not blisters present.

However, the blisters and sores are highly infectious, so if you or a partner have cold sores or Genital Herpes:

  • Avoid kissing when you, or a partner, have cold sores around the mouth
  • Avoid oral sex when you, or a partner, have mouth or genital sores
  • Avoid any genital or anal contact when you, or a partner, have genital sores or blisters, or if you feel an outbreak starting.


Usually Herpes tests are only done at the time when you have visible ulcers or blisters.

No, not in men or women.

  • Apply an ice pack for up to an hour or so. Ice should not be put directly onto the skin so use a towel or flannel.
  • Take a cool shower to soothe the sores
  • Apply a local anaesthetic ointment such as lidocaine - this will help relieve the pain. You can buy this from the pharmacy or get it from a sexual health clinic.
  • Avoid washing too often, and dab the affected area gently to dry it
  • Gently bathe the area using cotton wool and a warm salt water solution (1 teaspoon of salt to 1 pint of water)
  • If urinating is painful, go to the toilet in a warm bath or shower
  • Wash your hands before touching the blisters or sores - this helps to avoid introducing bacteria which may cause an infection and delay the healing process
  • Drink extra fluids, such as water or soft drinks. This dilutes the urine so it will be less painful when peeing over the sores.
  • Wear loose clothing
  • Use a mild pain-relieving drug such as paracetamol if needed
  • Rest
  • Eat healthily.

Some people find certain things trigger a Genital Herpes outbreak. These include:

  • Being ill, run down, tired or stressed
  • Different times in the menstrual cycle
  • Friction from sex or masturbation
  • Ultraviolet light on the affected skin area (such as from sunbathing or using sun beds)
  • Tight clothing and nylon or lycra underwear
  • Drinking alcohol or smoking.

It may be useful to avoid any triggers, although this is not always possible. Recurrences eventually stop altogether within 18–24 months for many people, although it may take longer for others.

No, if you have no blisters or ulcers at the time then no one can tell that you carry the infection. This is why it is important to discuss any infection with your sexual partners.

You can get tested at a sexual health clinic or by your GP. The clinician will take a swab of fluid from the infected area to confirm whether you have the virus. This takes a few seconds and may sting.

You can only test for Herpes if you have symptoms.